Significance Of Electroencephalography In Brain Monitoring
Brain monitoring is most commonly measured by Electroencephalography, or EEG, which is probably the second-best known technique in the world for recording neural activity. While the fMRI records blood flow rate and is a proxy of neuron activation, EEG directly records the electrical activities of the brain via electrodes that are placed on the scalp of the subject. The Brain monitoring market is presumed to reach USD 8.0 Bn by 2028, from USD 5.4 Bn in 2020, growing at a healthy CAGR of nearly 7.2%.
A.) EEG (Electroencephalography):
When using EEG, an individual is measuring the electrical activity that is generated by the various cortical layers of the human brain. Specifically, the electrical signals are picked up from the grey matter regions, which have many high densities of pyramidal cells that effectively communicate with each other.
Whenever these large groups of pyramidal cells fire up in a synchronized pattern, the generated electricity automatically radiates to the scalp surface, and this is what is recorded with the EEG electrodes as the electric fields are comparatively very low signals and are generally required to be amplified. The activity will be stronger compared to that of a reference location (i.e. typically situated behind the ears that are referred to as the “mastoid processes”).
It should be kept in mind that EEG is regarded as a referential recording & not an absolute voltage, as it always represents a relative decrease or increase in electricity at a specific location. These changes in the electric fields occur very fast, so with EEG, individuals will get 360-degree insight into brain processes with a very high-resolution time (i.e. up to 1 millisecond, dependent on the sampling rate).
EEG also allows to record brain processes that happen shortly after the onset of audio or visual stimuli (there are consistent brain processes after 50-100 milliseconds post-stimulus), but an induvial can also monitor the various brain states reflecting engagement, drowsiness or motivational feelings over long periods of time (hours to days). This excellent time resolution gives a 360-degree insight into the precise timing of brain processing.
B.) fMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging):
fMRI is known as a functional neuroimaging procedure that measures brain function by the detection of changes in blood flow associated with neuron activities. The assumption is that the neurons require more oxygen when they’re in active mode. fMRI has a trade-off between the temporal and spatial resolution, yet it is a relatively slow neuroimaging method as compared to the methods of EEG or MEG. However, the actual strength of the MRI is its excellent spatial resolution. With magnetic imaging, an individual can reconstruct the individual skull shapes & cortical layers of all of the respondents.
C.) MEG (Magnetoencephalography):
While EEG records the various electrical activities generated by neural firing, the MEG captures the different magnetic fields that are generated by neural activity. MEG devices are completely stationary (i.e. very much similar to fMRI devices). They require the participant to lay down or sit almost in a motionless way and keep movements to as minimum as possible.
Hence the advent of these high-quality devices ensures that the market outlook will take a 360-degree turn in the future. Apart from that, governments from all across the world are raising funds for the enhancement of brain monitoring activities which will also add up to the market growth in future.