The origin of homework took place around 1905, in Italy, by the scholastic (academic or educational) Roberto Nevilis. His purpose in creating “homework” was to “punish” his students. By the end of the 19th century, people had implemented changes in the type and period of homework.
However, homework later developed as a type of self-determining work focusing on the student’s independent learning capacity. It aimed to nurture the imagination, initiative, individuality and independence of a student. The following three characteristics were implemented which were –
- Small and simple
- It was initiated after students were trained for independent activity.
Experts later noticed that learning from home improved a student’s learning process. Homework enhances the quality and standard of education.
The value of home learning
Now, let’s look at the value of home learning –
- Recollection – When students attend classes, they learn from various study materials. But, later on, they forget it. Homework reminds them of the things they learned in class.
- Sharpening scientific conceptions – Science is a complex subject, and students require repetitive assimilation and comprehension of its information.
- Successful memorization – Learning becomes achievable and successful once students memorize their lessons.
- Skill development – Home learning helps students improve their creative potentials, inherent talents and capabilities.
The preparation of homework determines the success in teaching and gaining philosophy dissertation help. First, however, the tutor must invest their best efforts and complete focus to organize the homework.
4 Basic Principles
- Children offer explanations of reality that vary with the stages of cognitive development.
- Learner engagement and adaptation functions through situations or activities toward cognitive development.
- The proper level of motor functions and mental activities of a child from a certain age should determine their learning materials and other activities.
- Apply active teaching procedures which involve students facing challenges.
Piaget’s Genetic Epistemology
Jean Piaget conducted a naturalistic research program on child development for more than six decades. His primary interest lay in the development of knowledge in human beings. He named this general theoretical framework “genetic epistemology“. This theory on child development research involves roots in Philosophy and Biology.
According to Piaget, cognitive structures involve patterns in physical and psychological activities. Such actions include particular acts of intelligence corresponding to the child’s development stages. Piaget points to four primary cognitive structures or development stages –
- Sensorimotor – Intelligence forms as motor functions in the sensorimotor stage lying between 0 and 2 years.
- Preoperations – Intelligence is intuitive in the preoperational stage, which lies within 3 to 7 years.
- Concrete operations – The cognitive structure depends upon concrete referents and follows a logical approach from 8 to 11 years.
- Formal operations – The age between 12 years to 15 years includes thinking with abstractions.
The Assimilation Theory of Learning
In the early 1960s, David Ausubel developed the cognitive learning theory known as the assimilation theory of learning. The view is built on Piaget’s genetic epistemology that deals with the assimilation hypothesis. This hypothesis considers new learning experiences integrated with preexisting knowledge structures.
The assimilation theory of learning implies that new information incorporates within a preset anchoring structure within the student’s mindset. The theory also claims that the vital factor which affects a student’s learning lies in what they already know.
5 steps in educational material assimilation
Teachers should understand the five steps of the educational material assimilation, which are –
- The formulation of the formation of skills
- Practising or applying new knowledge and skills.
The True Purpose of Homework
Nowadays, several individuals believe that mastering the study material does not include homework as a necessary option. However, current scientific investigations speak otherwise.
Homework helps improve the quality of a student’s knowledge.
The inventor of homework – Roberto Nevilis, points out that homework helps the student to –
- Work at their pace without haste.
- Study without outside estimation.
- Choose optimal work hours.
- Independent planning.
- Include every vital information source.
Students can gain the following from their academic assignments –
- Reassemble the materials in their memory which was disassembled in their classroom.
- Repeat or revise previous study material.
- Combine and increase different vital skills for independent activities.
Therefore, the core purpose of homework is –
- Nurturing the independence, responsibility and willful efforts of a child.
- Sharpening educational skills expressible throughout different teaching formats.
- Nurturing the capability to collect necessary information from dictionaries, directories and manuals.
- Developing the students’ research skill sets like hypothesis constructions, assumptions, hypotheses, etc.
The tutor must tailor their homework relevant to the study material. They must combine multiple variations of assignments in their classes.
Forms of Homework
At present, teachers follow six basic homework variations in their studying process –
- Mastering their study material from the textbook.
- Indulge in oral exercises.
- Engage in writing activities.
- Perform over creative works.
- Prepare reports on the study material.
- Conduct experiments and observations.
However, for students to perceive information, they require a balanced combination of these homework methods.
Homework that enhances education quality.
The learning process becomes simple with the organization and contents of the home task on a subject. Multiple homework variants can improve a student’s knowledge, upgrade their studying procedures and organize their knowledge.
According to psychologists, gathering knowledge and acting on them is essential. Thinking and applying new knowledge should support the process of study organizing and knowledge consolidation.
The subsequent work can become individual and independent with the frontal approach to primary perception and knowledge consolidation.
Therefore, homework is not intended to control a student; instead, it helps the student devote their time to the subject. In addition, the added study time helps systemize knowledge and improves students’ skill sets.
Katie Gomes is a student psychologist who has worked with MyAssignmenthelp.com for the last six years. Katie helps her students seek essay help.